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This allowed Germany the military advantage of controlling and expanding the railways there.In August 1914, Imperial Germany violated Luxembourg's neutrality in the war by invading it in the war against France.This allowed Germany to use the railway lines, while at the same time denying them to France.Nevertheless, despite the German occupation, Luxembourg was allowed to maintain much of its independence and political mechanisms.In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors.In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy.The King of the Netherlands remained Head of State as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, maintaining a personal union between the two countries until 1890.
The city of Luxembourg, which is the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU.The City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city.The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, "little castle", and the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. In 1308, Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg became King of the Germans and later Holy Roman Emperor.The House of Luxembourg produced four emperors during the High Middle Ages.In 1354, Charles IV elevated the county to the Duchy of Luxembourg.
It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south.